Arctic moss grows at the bottom of the various arctic lakes. Much like its moss cousins, Arctic moss does not have actual roots but rootlets as well as very small leaves that are usually only as thick as one cell. Arctic moss is a slow growing plant with its stems living up to nine years and its leaves living all the way up to four. This moss has adapted to cold climates by storing nutrients that allow the new leaves to grow during the next summer.
Arctic willow is a sideways growing tree that grows in cold dry locations on the tundra. Arctic willows are one of the few plants on the tundra that actually grow a shrub. It grows in many different shapes and sometimes has one long trailing branch that roots where it touches down. The leaves of the Arctic willow are a shade of dark green and the flowers that it produces are upright spikes that are brown and unisex in nature. Its' shallow root system allows it to stay alive and even absorb nutrients from the permafrost that commonly surrounds it in the Arctic tundra.